Ancient Egyptian documents describe Snofru as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler. He is the main protagonist of the famous Westcar Papyrus. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra.The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods. Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. However, this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from. Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty. It is here given as per Ryholt, however this reconstruction of the dynasty is heavily debated with the position of the five kings preceding Nehesy highly disputed.The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list.Concerning ancient sources, Egyptologists and Historians alike call for caution about the credibility, exactitude and completeness of these sources, many of which were written long after the reigns they report.An additional problem is that ancient king lists are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and/or selective.The union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs.
Modern lists of pharaohs are based on historical records: Ancient Egyptian king lists and later histories, such as Manetho's Aegyptiaca, as well as archaeological evidence.
The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.
The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II.
In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom.
The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time.
They comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved.