The author argues in favor of both case study research as a research strategy and qualitative content analysis as a method of examination of data material and seeks to encourage the integration of qualitative content analysis into the data analysis in case study research. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research 5.1 Mixed methods and triangulation 5.2 Case study research and qualitative content analysis 5.2.1 Openness and ability to deal with complexity 5.2.2 Theory-guided analysis 5.2.3 Integration of context 5.2.4 Integration of different material/evidence 5.2.5 Integration of quantitative steps of analysis 5.3 Limitations of qualitative content analysis 6. There has been an ongoing debate on the appropriateness of different approaches and methods in social research.Outlook Acknowledgments Notes References Author Citation 1. As a matter of fact, many authors point to the heated discussions, sometimes even "wars" (the so-called "paradigm war"), between the adherents of quantitative (so-called "QUANs") and qualitative research (so-called "QUALs") designs (e.g.These must be distinguished from teaching case studies—i.e.case studies as a pedagogical device—which are widely used particularly in business and law schools (cf. HARTLEY, 2004, p.324; REMENYI, MONEY, PRICE and BANNISTER, 2002, pp.2-4; YIN, 2003a, p.2).Then, a basic introduction to (qualitative) content analysis as an interpretation method for qualitative interviews and other data material is given. Case Study Research 3.1 The case study as a research strategy 3.2 Designing case studies 3.3 Conducting case studies 3.3.1 Collecting evidence 3.3.2 Analyzing case study evidence 3.3.3 Reporting case studies 4.Finally the use of qualitative content analysis for developing case studies is examined and evaluated. Content Analysis 4.1 Classical content analysis 4.2 Qualitative content analysis 4.2.1 Excursus: qualitative research 4.2.2 Philipp MAYRING's approach 4.2.3 Quality criteria and validation issues 5. 2.1 Cognitive interest and research question Since its development in the beginning of the 1980s, MAYRING's qualitative content analysis has achieved popularity (TITSCHER, MEYER, WODAK & VETTER, 2000, p.62).
BRYMAN, 2004, pp.454ff.; CRESWELL, 2003, pp.208ff.; JICK, 1979, p.602; cf. Besides, in the course of the last century (especially the second half of it), the development of qualitative methods showed impressive advances and results, thus helping to gain more acceptance not only in the field of social research (cf. As the following sections will show, the combination and mixing of different research methods bears an enormous potential for the advancement of social research. Research Question, Aim and Structure of the Paper This section presents the research question underlying the analysis and discussion in the following sections and gives a short outline of the paper, explaining its aim, structure and scope.
However, when analyzing the frequency of keywords considerable deviations from the citation analysis turned up: a marked dominance of qualitative (and also quantitative) content analysis (TITSCHER et al., 2000, pp.219-221). STAKE (2000) concurs, suggesting that case studies have become "one of the most common ways to do qualitative inquiry" (p.435). Besides, it was claimed that case studies lack in rigor and reliability and that they do not address the issue of generalizability in contrast to quantitative methods (HARTLEY, 1994, p.208).
 Case studies are widely used in organizational studies and across the social sciences, and there is some suggestion that the case study method is increasingly being used and with a growing confidence in the case study as a rigorous research strategy in its own right (cf. However, there have also been traditional prejudices against case study strategy in such a way that case studies have been viewed as a less desirable form of inquiry for instance (cf.  The author argues in favor of both case study research as a research strategy—trying to disprove the critiques just mentioned—and qualitative content analysis as a method of examination of data material.
 On the one hand, this definition puts forth the main points of what qualitative research is about, but it also demonstrates how it is positioned or tries to position itself in contrast to quantitative research.
NEUMAN (1997) goes even further by stating that there are basically two categories of data collection techniques: quantitative and qualitative (p.30).
For an extensive review and analysis of case study research reference should be made to the state-of-the-art literature (e.g.