By the beginning of the 21st century, approximately 360 million people, or roughly 6 percent of the world’s population, were estimated to have access to the Internet.
It is widely assumed that at least half of the world’s population will have some form of Internet access by 2010 and that wireless access will play a growing role.
Packet switching takes large messages (or chunks of computer data) and breaks them into smaller, manageable pieces (known as packets) that can travel independently over any available circuit to the target destination, where the pieces are reassembled.
Thus, unlike traditional voice communications, packet switching does not require a single dedicated circuit between each pair of users.
Thus arose the need to connect the packet satellite net, as well as the packet radio net, with other networks..
First, DARPA established a program to investigate the interconnection of “heterogeneous networks.” This program, called Internetting, was based on the newly introduced concept of open architecture networking, in which networks with defined standard interfaces would be interconnected by “gateways.” A working demonstration of the concept was planned.
TCP, which originally included the Internet protocol (IP), a global addressing mechanism that allowed routers to get data packets to their ultimate destination, formed the standard, which was adopted by the U. In 1985–86 NSF funded the first five supercomputing centres—at , a national “backbone” network to connect these centres.
Today a loosely structured group of several thousand interested individuals known as the Internet Engineering Task Force participates in a The rise of commercial Internet services and applications helped to fuel a rapid commercialization of the Internet.
It supports access to digital information by many applications, including the World Wide Web. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), later renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), to develop a communication system among government and academic computer-research laboratories.
The Internet has proved to be a spawning ground for a large and growing number of “e-businesses” (including subsidiaries of traditional “brick-and-mortar” companies) that carry out most of their sales and services over the Internet. The first network component, ARPANET, became operational in October 1969.
Host-to-host interactions were envisioned, along with access to specialized resources (such as (FTP), for longer transmissions—quickly emerged.
In order to achieve cost-effective interactive communications between computers, which typically communicate in short bursts of data, ARPANET employed the new technology of .NSF also funded various nonprofit local and regional networks to connect other users to the NSFNET.