Other accounts, however, speak of Tusculum as often allied with Rome's enemies, the last being the Samnites in 323 BC.Several of the chief Roman families were of Tusculan origin, e.g.When Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last King of Rome, was expelled from the city in 509 B.C., he sought military help from his son-in-law Octavius Mamilius, one of the leading men of Tusculum.The Mamilii claimed to be descended from Telegonus, the founder of the city. Of the Latin cities, only Tusculum quickly sent troops, commanded by the dictator Lucius Mamilius, to help the Romans.
Notwithstanding this, and the fact that a special college of Roman equites was formed to take charge of the cults of the gods at Tusculum, and especially of the Dioscuri, the citizens resident there were neither numerous nor men of distinction.
Gregory I of Tusculum rebuilt the fortress on the Tuscolo hill, and gave as a gift the "Criptaferrata" to Saint Nilus the Younger, where the latter built a famous abbey.
Gregory also headed the rebellion of the Roman people of 1001 against the German Emperor Otto III.
Seneca wrote: "Nobody who wants to acquire a home in Tusculum or Tibur for health reasons or as a summer residence, will calculate how much yearly payments are".
In 45 BC Cicero wrote a series of books in his Roman villa in Tusculum, the Tusculanae Quaestiones.The volcano itself is located in the Alban Hills 6 kilometres (4 miles) south of the present-day town of Frascati.